Cherkasy, is a city in central Ukraine. It is the capital of the Cherkasy Oblast (province), as well as the administrative center of the surrounding Cherkasky Raion (district) within the oblast. The city itself is also designated as its own separate raion within the oblast. It is not to be confused with the Russian city of Cherkassk which is on the Don River to the east.
The city is located on the right bank of Dnieper River (specifically at the Kremenchuk Reservoir), about 200 km (124 mi) south of the nation's capital, Kiev. The city is divided into 2 boroughs (raions): Sosnivskiy (with Orshanets village) and Pridniprovskiy. The current population of Cherkasy is 287,583 (as of 2011). In June 2011, the city celebrated its 725th anniversary.
The city is the cultural, educational and industrial center of Cherkasy Oblast and Central Economical Region of Ukraine. Cherkasy has been known since the 13th century and played a great role in the history of Ukraine. Cherkasy was the center of Cossacks, citizens took part in Khmelnychchyna and Koliyivschyna (cossacks' and peasants' rebellions).
The history of Cherkasy has not been thoroughly explored. The year of establishment is considered to be 1286 on the Kievan Rus territory. There are few facts about the beginning of the city's life, but it is documented that Cherkasy existed in the 14th century. The first record about Cherkasy was made in 1305 and was found in the Gustynskiy Chronicle, which is the Kievan Rus chronicle. The city is mentioned as an existing city among other Kievan Rus cities, including Kiev, Kaniv, Zhytomyr and Ovruch.
The city was one of the centers of the Cossack movement. Citizens took part in Khmelnychchyna and Koliyivschyna. The city was influenced by the cruel social and economical experiments of Soviet authorities and World War II. In 1954, Cherkasy became the administrative center of Cherkasy Oblast (province), the youngest oblast of Ukraine.
The Second World War damaged the city greatly. On 22 June 1941, German bombers attacked Cherkasy. For two months soldiers defended the city, but on 22 August, the invaders took the city. On 14 December 1943, Cherkasy was set free from German invaders. After the end of the war, the city began to recover after being almost destroyed. According to 5-year plans, the city began to re-develop its economy, infrastructure and socio-cultural sphere. In 1954 the city became the administrative center of Cherkasy Oblast (province), the youngest among other oblasts in Ukraine. In the 1960s Cherkasy became the chemical giant of the Ukrainian SSR, after "Azot" (the biggest nitrogen fertilizer producing plant), "Himvolokno" (artificial fiber manufacturing plant), "Himreaktyv" (chemical reagents for military purposes) and many others were built in the city. In 1961 a Kremenchuk hydro power plant was built, forming Kremenchuk Water Reservoir, on which Cherkasy is standing now. This made the city a big transport hub, serving the longest dyke in Ukraine (15 km) with rail and road on it.
The climate of Cherkasy is mild continental, with mild winters and warm (in the last few years mostly hot) summers. The average temperature in the city is +7.7 °C (45.9 °F). Winters are usually cold and snowy (the average January temperature is −5.9 °C (21.4 °F)), but the last few winters have been rather warm with rare severe frosts (up to −25 °C (−13 °F)). Summers are dry and warm (the average temperature in July is +19.8 °C (67.6 °F)), with occasional highs reaching +35 °C (95 °F).
Public transportation is represented by trolleybuses and buses. Trolleybuses started serving the city in 1965, and now are operating on 10 routes, from approximately 6 am till 11 pm. The fleet is old, and mostly consists of ZiU-9 and ZiU-10 vehicles. Recently, 3 new trolleybuses (manufactured by LAZ) appeared in the city. Buses are mostly represented with "Etalon", "Bohdan", and "PAZ" buses. Cherkasy City Bus is the authority that controls the buses in the city, it consists of several private contractors which actually operate the transport system.